引言   友善列印

在化學工業中,觸媒佔有極為重要的角色,因觸媒的參與,有利於加速化學反應的進行及提升產率。觸媒的活性、選擇性及使用壽命,直接地影響製程的生產成本和產品品質,所以不論產業界或學術業都不斷地積極研發出效能更佳的新觸媒,以增加產品的產率及純度。

一般的觸媒系統可分為均相(homogeneous)、非均相(heterogeneous)及混成相(hybrid)三大類。其中的均相觸媒系統是指反應物和觸媒均在同一相中進行反應,其優點包括 (一)易於偵測反應的過程與探討反應機制;(二)分散性較佳,使得受質與觸媒的碰撞機會提高,增加催化率;(三)反應條件較為溫和;(四)容易藉配位基修飾,以利於提升反應選擇性。在一般的有機溶劑中進行有機金屬觸媒催化反應時,均相系統往往較非均相系統的反應性佳,但均相系統中觸媒與產物的分離過程較繁複,且觸媒重複使用的便利性亦較非均相系統為低,因此使得均相觸媒的應用性大為降低。混成相催化系統,便是針對均相與非均相系統的缺失發展而成。所謂的混成相催化系統,指的是將均相分子式觸媒藉由長鏈錨錠分子承載於非均相載體上,其中金屬觸媒與反應物處在同一相內進行反應,一旦反應結束後,金屬觸媒因與非均相載體相連結,可藉由簡單的過濾方式達到與產物分離的目的。

不論上述何種觸媒系統,因觸媒的參與,以催化方式加速化學反應的進行及提升產率,都符合綠色化學永續發展的原則。若在反應系統中,能使觸媒在無毒害的綠色溶劑下進行催化反應,或改以綠色能源微波快速加熱方式,取代傳統對流加熱法進行催化反應,且能將觸媒多次回收再利用,都屬於對環境無害、值得從事相關領域的研究工作者永續發展的綠色催化系統。
 
書籍
Handbook of Green Chemistry - Green Catalysis: Volume 1 - Homogeneous Catalysis 2009年即將出版的書籍,介紹均相催化反應以及均相的系統
Catalysis-Concepts and Green Applications 類似教科書,分門別類介紹均相和非均相以及生物催化反應
Aqueous-Phase Organometallic Catalysis: Concepts and Applications, 2004, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, ISSN: 3527307125 This book describes use of OM complexes to work as catalysts in aqueous phase unlike traditional organic phase. It is a greener process for catalytic reactions occurring in water to produce desired organic products.
Applied Homogeneous Catalysis with Organometallic CompoundsThe enormous breadth of this topic in view of both basic research and industrial application is met in this three volume handbook edited jointly by W. A. Herrmann and B. Cornils. The list of contributors reads like a who-is-who in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. In this handbook, experts will find the current state-of-the-art in their field and advanced students will benefit from the concise treatment of important catalytic reactions and processes. With its balanced presentation of the truly interdisciplinary topic and its outstanding editor- and authorship, the 'Cornils/Herrmann' is beyond common standards. Now in its second, completely revised and enlarged edition!
Homogeneous CatalysisThis timely book responds to the need in the chemical industry for a guidebook devoted to the key concepts of homogeneous catalysis. Focusing on homogeneous catalytic reactions with proven industrial applications, this practical work helps industrial chemists bridge the gap between imaginative academic research and successful technology
Mechanisms in Homogeneous Catalysis Adopting a practice-oriented approach, the authors devote two parts to each of NMR and IR spectroscopy, as well as one on industrial applications. Instead of a complete and exhaustive review of homogeneous hydrogenation and its detailed mechanisms, the book focuses on the specific spectroscopic techniques and the mechanistic information that has been obtained from their application. The result shows chemists from different fields which techniques can be applied to their specific synthetic problems.
For specialists, and researchers in industry and academia
Multiphase Homogeneous Catalysis This long-awaited two-volume handbook is the one-stop reference for everybody working in the field of multiphase catalysis. Covering academic and industrial applications, it will set the standard for future developments.
Catalysts for Continuous Homogeneous CatalysisA general introduction in the field of continuous homogeneous catalysis is given. Different types of reactors are discussed followed by an overview of commercially available nanofiltration membranes. Dendritic catalysts applied in homogeneous catalysis are discussed subsequently together with unmodified or non-dendritic catalysts
   
Review Articles
Homogeneous Catalysis by Gold 主要是利用各種金的催化劑去做一系列的均相催化反應,並且也達到綠色化學的其中一宗旨(solvent free)
Gold-Catalyzed Organic Reactions 主要是利用各種金的催化劑去做一系列的均相催化反應,並且也達到綠色化學的其中一宗旨
Multiphase catalysis and its potential in catalytic processes: the story of biphasic homogeneous catalysis 多相的催化系統,在均相催化系統裡可以很輕易的利用溶劑極性的不同分離出催化劑,並且可以有較好的催化活性,並且可以重覆使用
Homogeneous Catalyst Recovery 藉由催化劑與產物(或溶劑)在溶解度及大小的不同,來分離勻相催化系統中的催化劑與產物,而達到催化劑回收再利用的綠色化學目標。
Homogeneous Catalysis: Enhanced Toward Greener ChemistryScience 1999, 284, 1477 -1479.Chemical manufacturing increasingly has to take environmental concerns into account, and chemical processes have to be designed accordingly. Baker and Tumas discuss recent developments in the area of homogeneous catalysis, where so-called biphasic catalysis is aiding separation of product and catalyst and facilitating catalyst recovery.
綠色小分子,污水大剋星 (美國科學人中文版2006年3月) — 美國科學人中文版2006年3月所刊出的文章。為了消滅一些危害環境最烈的污染物質,化學家發明了一類新型的催化劑,使污染物可以及時被催化劑分解,而不會大量存在於環境中。
Little Green Molecules — "綠色小分子,污水大剋星"之英文版。
   
News
Robert Crabtree Wins ACS Green Chemistry Award   
Designer Surfactant for Micellar Catalysis C&EN, 2009, 87(7), 40 — A novel amphiphilic molecule provides a promising platform for carrying out greener ring-closing metathesis reactions in water.

2009 ACS Award For Affordable Green Chemistry Goes to Geoffrey W. Coates C&EN 2009, 87(05), 36. — Professor Coates of Cornell University creates great catalysts for making biodegradable polymers.

   
重要網站
Laboratory News — Scientists Develop Recyclable Catalyst for Solvent-Free Reactions\
Activity — Biphase Chemistry的介紹
Efficient Chemistry — 簡單介紹離子液體以及均相催化
   
演講之Powerpoint檔案/ Summer School之資料
Green Synthesis — 以Homogeneous Catalysis為主題,Green Chemistry為準則。包含12項綠色化學的準則,介紹許多Homogeneous Catalysis的例子
Catalysis and Ionic Liquids — 說明離子液體的優點及大家使用他的原因以及在Homogeneous Catalysis的應用
Outlook on Catalytic Technologies for Sustainable Development : the Argentina Case — Renewable Resource and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge
Green Chemistry & Catalysis for Sustainable Organic Synthesis — 以綠色化學主體,其中提到E factor、原子效率以及許多成功的催化反應之例子

CATALYSIS Theory and Applications — 以勻相催化為主題,其中還提到silicalite、dendrimer、enzyme 利用在催化反應上。另外追求綠色化學

Environmental Conscious Process Design Green Engineering and Chemistry — 以追求綠色化學為目的去設計化學反應
Green Engineering Chemistry/Chemical Engineering for Sustainability — 綠色化學設計的介紹
   
Conferences
ISHC-XVI: 16th International Symposium on Homogeneous Catalysis
[6-11 July 2008]
— 2008年第16屆均相催化討論會網頁
“The 23rd International Conference on Organometallic Chemistry (ICOMC2008)” at the University of Rennes1 inRennes, France. 13-18 July 2008.
   
Research Group
Institute of Green Oxidation Chemistry established at Carnegie Mellon University — Research carried out in the Institute is focused on the pollution reduction component of green or sustainable chemistry.
   
 
 
 
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